Journal of Mathematical Economics 71 (2017) 96–103
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This paper examines the operation of Diamond–Dybvig banks when depositors have access to the asset market. Previous studies have shown that banks are redundant in this environment since it is impossible to prevent the strategic withdrawals. This paper shows that the strategic withdrawals can be prevented if the market risk, due to asset price volatility, is considered. Banks provide deterministic returns to the depositors since the aggregate withdrawals are predictable, and therefore, banks can choose the portfolio such that no asset liquidation is involved. However, an individual consumer with stochastic liquidity need is vulnerable to the price volatility if he holds the asset directly. Therefore, banks improve the consumers’ welfare by providing the insurance against not only the liquidity shock but also the market risk. Banks are not redundant.