Nonparametric Additive Instrumental Variable Estimator: A Group Shrinkage Estimation Perspective
Q. Fan, W. Zhong
Journal of Business and Economic Statistics
#002352 20161226 ()
In this paper, we study a nonparametric approach regarding a general nonlinear reduced form equation to achieve a better approximation of the optimal instrument. Accordingly, we propose the nonparametric additive instrumental variable estimator (NAIVE) with the adaptive group Lasso. We theoretically demonstrate that the proposed estimator is root-n consistent and asymptotically normal. The adaptive group Lasso helps us select the valid instruments while the dimensionality of potential instrumental variables is allowed to be greater than the sample size. In practice, the degree and knots of B-spline series are selected by minimizing the BIC or EBIC criteria for each nonparametric additive component in the reduced form equation. In Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the NAIVE has the same performance as the linear instrumental variable (IV) estimator for the truly linear reduced form equation. On the other hand, the NAIVE performs much better in terms of bias and mean squared errors compared to other alternative estimators under the high dimensional nonlinear reduced form equation. We further illustrate our method in an empirical study of international trade and growth. Our findings provide a stronger evidence that international trade has a significant positive effect on economic growth.